Original Research

Grassland communities of urban open spaces in Bloemfontein, Free State, South Africa

Mamokete N.V. Dingaan, Pieter J. du Preez
Koedoe | Vol 55, No 1 | a1075 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v55i1.1075 | © 2013 Mamokete N.V. Dingaan, Pieter J. du Preez | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 15 February 2012 | Published: 14 March 2013

About the author(s)

Mamokete N.V. Dingaan, Department of Plant Sciences, University of the Free State; Department of Soil, Crop and Climate Sciences, University of the Free State, South Africa
Pieter J. du Preez, Department of Plant Sciences, University of the Free State, South Africa

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Natural vegetation in urban environments is greatly impacted by human activities and it is in constant threat of degradation and destruction as a result of urbanisation. This vegetation, although fragmented, serves an important ecological function and needs to be properly managed and conserved. Studies on urban vegetation are lacking in South Africa, with only a handful having been carried out since the end of the last century. This study was initiated to identify, classify and describe the grassland communities of the urban open spaces in Bloemfontein. Relevés were compiled in 61 sample plots, where species present and habitat information were recorded. Care was taken to restrict sample plots to vegetation in pristine condition, wherever possible, and severely degraded stands were avoided. A two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN) classification, refined by Braun-Blanquet procedures, revealed two distinct major communities, seven communities and four sub-communities. Both detrended and canonical correspondence analyses indicated the vegetation units to be associated with soil texture and pH, although biotic factors such as overgrazing, burning and mowing also influence the composition of the vegetation. The proper management and conservation of urban open spaces requires in-depth knowledge of the spatial distribution, floristic, structural and functional compositions within the major vegetation types in this environment. The present study further contributed towards formulating ways for the proper management, utilisation and functioning of the open spaces within the Bloemfontein area.

Conservation implications: The Grassland Biome of South Africa is poorly conserved, mainly because of its status as an agricultural hub of the country. The preservation of natural and semi-natural forms of urban vegetation is important because such vegetation, although often disturbed and degraded, could form dispersal corridors between peri-urban and rural vegetation.


Braun-Blanquet; classification; ordination; phytosociology; urban open space


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