Review Article

Fire regimes in eastern coastal fynbos: Imperatives and thresholds in managing for diversity

Tineke Kraaij, Richard M. Cowling, Brian W. van Wilgen
Koedoe | Vol 55, No 1 | a1104 | DOI: | © 2013 Tineke Kraaij, Richard M. Cowling, Brian W. van Wilgen | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 25 July 2012 | Published: 15 March 2013

About the author(s)

Tineke Kraaij, South African National Parks, Garden Route Scientific Services; Department of Botany, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, South Africa
Richard M. Cowling, Department of Botany, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, South Africa
Brian W. van Wilgen, CSIR Natural Resources and the Environment, Stellenbosch; Centre for Invasion Biology, Department of Botany and Zoology, Stellenbosch University, South Africa


Until recently, fire ecology was poorly understood in the eastern coastal region of the Cape Floral Kingdom (CFK), South Africa. Rainfall in the area is aseasonal and temperatures are milder than in the winter-rainfall and drier inland parts of the CFK, with implications for the management of fire regimes. We synthesised the findings of a research programme focused on informing ecologically sound management of fire in eastern coastal fynbos shrublands and explored potential east–west trends at the scales of study area and CFK in terms of fire return interval (FRI) and fire season. FRIs (8–26 years; 1980–2010) were comparable to those elsewhere in the CFK and appeared to be shorter in the eastern Tsitsikamma than in the western Outeniqua halves of the study area. Proteaceae juvenile periods (4–9 years) and post-fire recruitment success suggested that for biodiversity conservation purposes, FRIs should be ≥ 9 years in eastern coastal fynbos. Collectively, findings on the seasonality of actual fires and the seasonality of fire danger weather, lightning and post-fire proteoid recruitment suggested that fires in eastern coastal fynbos are not limited to any particular season. We articulated these findings into ecological thresholds pertaining to the different elements of the fire regime in eastern coastal fynbos, to guide adaptive management of fire in the Garden Route National Park and elsewhere in the region.

Conservation implications: Wildfires are likely to remain dominant in eastern coastal fynbos, whilst large-scale implementation of prescribed burning is unattainable. Fires occurring in any season are not a reason for concern, although other constraints remain: the need for sufficient fire intensity, safety requirements, and integration of fire and invasive alien plant management.


adaptive management; fire-prone shrublands; fire return interval; fire season; Garden Route National Park; prescribed burning; thresholds of potential concern


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Crossref Citations

1. Characterizing a Poacher-Driven Fire Regime in Low-Nutrient Coastal Grasslands of Pondoland, South Africa
Christopher F. Brooke, Tineke Kraaij, Jan A. Venter
Fire Ecology  vol: 14  issue: 1  first page: 1  year: 2018  
doi: 10.4996/fireecology.140101016