Original Research

Will woody plant encroachment impact the visitor experience and economy of conservation areas?

Emma F. Gray, William J. Bond
Koedoe | Vol 55, No 1 | a1106 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v55i1.1106 | © 2013 Emma F. Gray, William J. Bond | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 05 August 2012 | Published: 02 August 2013

About the author(s)

Emma F. Gray, South African Environmental Observation Network Fynbos Node, Cape Town; Department of Botany, University of Cape Town, South Africa
William J. Bond, Department of Botany, University of Cape Town, South Africa


Woody plant encroachment into savannas is a globally prevalent phenomenon and impacts ecosystem goods and services such as biodiversity, carbon storage, nutrient cycling, grazing and hydrology. The direct ecological and economic consequences for rangelands have been fairly well studied, but, to our knowledge, the economic impact on conservation efforts has not been investigated. African savannas are important as conservation areas because they support large numbers of the world’s remaining megafauna. This study used visitor surveys and long-term mammal distribution data to investigate how an increase in tree density might affect the visibility of animals in a conservation area, which could reduce the satisfaction of visitors to the area. We found that apparent herd sizes and density of animals were much reduced in woody areas, suggesting that visibility is negatively impacted. Visitor surveys determined that a large fraction (almost half) of potential future visitors to the park may be lost if animals became more difficult to see and that the majority of these would be the higher-spending visitors. Responses differed depending on the origin of visitors, with international visitors being more interested in seeing animals, whilst local visitors were more content with just being away from the city. The results suggest that woody plant encroachment may have significant impacts on visitor numbers to savanna conservation areas, whilst animal numbers and densities may also be significantly impacted.

Conservation implications: The results pointed to potentially significant economic consequences for conservation efforts as visitors become less satisfied with their experience. Perceptions of visitors are important for management decisions as park fees contribute significantly to conservation efforts. This could ultimately result in a reduced capacity for African conservation areas to conserve their biodiversity effectively. The results suggest that management may need to re-evaluate their approach to controlling woody plant encroachment.


savannas; vegetation change; visitor perceptions; megafauna; management


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Crossref Citations

1. Assessing removal methods for controlling Dichrostachys cinerea encroachment and their impacts on plant communities in an East‐African savannah ecosystem
Yonas Ugo Utaile, Olivier Honnay, Simon Shibru Cheche, Kenny Helsen
Applied Vegetation Science  vol: 26  issue: 1  year: 2023  
doi: 10.1111/avsc.12720