Original Research

Research to guide management of outdoor recreation and tourism in parks and protected areas

Robert E. Manning
Koedoe | Vol 56, No 2 | a1159 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v56i2.1159 | © 2014 Robert E. Manning | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 27 March 2013 | Published: 24 June 2014

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Robert E. Manning, Park Studies Laboratory, University of Vermont, United States

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A framework for managing outdoor recreation and tourism in parks and protected areas was presented in this article. This management-by-objectives framework includes, (1) formulating indicators and standards of quality, (2) monitoring indicators of quality and (3) implementing management actions designed to maintain standards of quality. This management framework can be used to help balance the demand for outdoor recreation and tourism and the need to protect park resources and the quality of the visitor experience. A programme of research to help guide application of this management framework was described and illustrated. This research is part of a growing body of scientific and professional literature on outdoor recreation and tourism that can be used to build the capacity of park and protected area management agencies.

Conservation implications: The management framework described in this article, and the associated programme of research, can be used by conservation practitioners to balance use and protection of national parks and protected areas.


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