Original Research

Habitat structure and diversity influence the nesting success of an endangered large cavity-nesting bird, the Southern Ground-hornbill

Leigh Combrink, Hendrik J. Combrink, André J. Botha, Colleen T. Downs
Koedoe | Vol 59, No 1 | a1438 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v59i1.1438 | © 2017 Leigh Combrink, Hendrik J. Combrink, André J. Botha, Colleen T. Downs | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 29 August 2016 | Published: 17 November 2017

About the author(s)

Leigh Combrink, School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal; The Endangered Wildlife Trust, Johannesburg, South Africa
Hendrik J. Combrink, Department of Veterinary Tropical Diseases, University of Pretoria, South Africa
André J. Botha, Endangered Wildlife Trust, Johannesburg, South Africa
Colleen T. Downs, School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa


Habitat features can have a profound effect on the nesting success of birds. Savannas are often managed with predators and large herbivores as priority species, with little thought to the many bird species that management decisions could affect. Using a data set spanning seven breeding seasons, we examined how nesting success of Southern Ground-hornbills (SGHs) Bucorvus leadbeateri in the Kruger National Park varied as a result of various environmental and habitat factors within a radius of 3 km surrounding the nest site. Identifying which factors affect nesting success will allow for targeted management efforts to ensure the long-term survival of SGHs both within and outside of protected areas. Habitat structure and diversity of the vegetation surrounding the nest were the most influential factors on SGH nesting success. SGHs require open grassy areas for foraging and areas with large trees for nesting. Savanna habitat drivers such as elephants and fire should be managed to ensure that sufficient large trees are able to establish in the landscape and to control for bush encroachment. This is especially important in areas earmarked for SGH reintroductions. Nest sites of SGHs should be monitored to mitigate any structural changes in the habitat surrounding the nests. Nests should be modified or artificial nest sites provided, where nests have been damaged or lost, to ensure the continued presence of these birds in African savannas.

Conservation implications: Habitat structure and diversity surrounding Southern Groundhornbill nests has a significant impact on their nesting success. This highlights the importance of monitoring vegetation change in savanna habitats where they occur. Management of savanna areas should take factors that influence bush encroachment, such as fire and elephants, into account to ensure the long-term persistence of these birds.


conservation; co-operative breeder; nesting success; savanna; Southern Ground-hornbill


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Crossref Citations

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doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2018.03.034