Original Research

First guidelines and suggested best protocol for surveying African elephants (Loxodonta africana) using a drone

Wesley L. Hartmann, Vicki Fishlock, Alison Leslie
Koedoe | Vol 63, No 1 | a1687 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v63i1.1687 | © 2021 Wesley L. Hartmann, Vicki Fishlock, Alison Leslie | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 06 May 2021 | Published: 06 September 2021

About the author(s)

Wesley L. Hartmann, Department of Conservation Ecology and Entomology, Faculty of AgriSciences, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa
Vicki Fishlock, Amboseli Trust for Elephants, Nairobi, Kenya; and Centre for Ecology and Conservation, University of Exeter, Cornwall, United Kingdom
Alison Leslie, Department of Conservation Ecology and Entomology, Faculty of AgriSciences, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa


Unmanned aerial vehicles, commonly known as drones, are increasingly used in ecological management, conservation and research. Numerous reviews on drones tout almost unlimited potential within the wildlife sciences as they open up inaccessible habitats to observation. However, the influence of drones on the animals themselves is far less understood, and impact studies to construct protocols for best practices are urgently needed to minimise the potential for stress on target species. The impact of a quadcopter drone’s approach speed, angle of approach and initial starting altitude was tested on the behavioural responses of African elephants (Loxodonta africana), along with sustained speed and flight pattern. Seventy-nine approach flights and 70 presence flights were conducted. The speed and angle of approach significantly impacted the success of a flight, but neither speed nor flight pattern had any measurable impact on elephants’ behaviour during sustained flights. It is recommended that drones be launched at a distance of 100 m from an elephant or a herd of elephants, ascending to a height of 50 m by using an approach speed of 2m/s and an approach angle of 45 ° or less to successfully contact elephant targets.

Conservation implications: This study aimed to provide a significant step towards the ethical use of drones in wildlife research. Further research is required to investigate the impacts of drones on other taxa. Physiological responses to drones, for example, would determine if physiological stress responses unlinked to behavioural indicators are of concern in elephants.


African elephant; aerial monitoring; drones; ethology; elephant behaviour; technology; unmanned aerial vehicles.


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Crossref Citations

1. Koalas showed limited behavioural response and no physiological response to drones
Diane Colombelli-Négrel, Imogen Z. Sach, Ian Hough, Jarrod C. Hodgson, Christopher B. Daniels, Sonia Kleindorfer
Applied Animal Behaviour Science  vol: 264  first page: 105963  year: 2023  
doi: 10.1016/j.applanim.2023.105963