Original Research

Role of delinquent young "orphan" male elephants in high mortality of white rhinoceros in Pilanesberg National Park, South Africa

R. Slotow, G. van Dyk
Koedoe | Vol 44, No 1 | a188 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v44i1.188 | © 2001 R. Slotow, G. van Dyk | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 01 July 2001 | Published: 01 July 2001

About the author(s)

R. Slotow, University of Natal, South Africa
G. van Dyk, Pilanesberg National Park, South Africa

Full Text:



We describe white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) mortality at Pilanesberg National Park, South Africa, focussing on mortality caused by African elephant (Loxodonta africana). We reconstructed records from a range of historical sources, and estimated that up to 49 rhino were killed by elephant. There was confirmed mortality in 1994 and 1996, and based on patterns, we suggest a set of rhino mortality from elephant in 1992. Both sexes and all age classes were victims. There was no significant bias to older animals, but given the rhino population structure, there was a significant bias towards males in adult deaths. The culprits were identified as young male elephants that entered musth about 10 years younger than expected, and maintained musth for a full term at first occurrence. We attributed this to the lack of a mature bull hierarchy in the park, because these elephants were the product of translocation of young animals (<10 years old) remaining from culls in Kruger National Park. We emphasise the need for accurate monitoring and record keeping, and a focus on individual identification of key species in small reserves.


Conservation Ecology, Ceratotherium simum, Loxodonta africana, rhinoceros, small population management.


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Crossref Citations

1. The Social and Ecological Integration of Captive-Raised Adolescent Male African Elephants (Loxodonta africana) into a Wild Population
Kate Evans, Randall Moore, Stephen Harris, Brock Fenton
PLoS ONE  vol: 8  issue: 2  first page: e55933  year: 2013  
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0055933