Original Research

Monitoring methods and techniques for censusing black rhinoceros Diceros bicomis bicomis in Etosha National Park

A. Cilliers
Koedoe | Vol 32, No 2 | a473 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v32i2.473 | © 1989 A. Cilliers | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 21 October 1989 | Published: 21 October 1989

About the author(s)

A. Cilliers, Etosha National Park, South Africa

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Selected Papers from the Rhinoceros Conservation Workshop, Skukuza, Kruger National Park,31 August – 4 September 1988 Water-hole census techniques as developed in Etosha for monitoring black rhinoceros are described in detail. The systematic recording of animals visiting water-holes at night yielded data on the population size and structure, and frequency of drinking of this species. Population size estimates derived from this method were compared with estimates derived from aerial census techniques. It was concluded that censusing at a water-hole accounted for 32 percent more animals than a total aerial count by helicopter, and 70 percent more animals than by using a fixed- wing aircraft.


Black rhinoceros, water-holes, observation procedures, aerial census, behaviour, identification.


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